When programming technological solutions processes for CNC machines runs significant part of the work moved from the sphere of immediate production that is based on action qualified worker processing the workpiece to conventional machine written management program containing detailed information sequence and nature functioning Executive mechanisms NC.
In process programming instructions crucial are a collection and ordering information before it will be encoded. At the same time, information they are divided into a geometric shape (from the drawing and technical issues conditions) and technological information (from the reference books, instructions and experience of a software engineer). This information for each the transition can be a variable. Amount of information for each transition and it makes up the Manager the program.
Received information as a result, the Manager the program represents represent the amount instructions to working machine tools for execution to a certain extent sequences actions taken from which add up the whole process options workpieces.
Process spellings managers programs as a software engineer includes the following stages:
1. Specialist, assuming use all advantages CNC, must, first of all, know the machine with CNC. From a point of view programmer’s point of view, necessary start studying any new one CNC machine tool, concentrating efforts in four areas the main ones directions:
- Need understand the basics components the machine tool.
- Then we need to figure it out in your movements the tool or a table in the room all acceptable values directions (axes).
- To learn auxiliary the elements of the machine.
- Understand in detail programming instructions each of the functions a CNC machine tool.
Even without being an agent ad Builder CNC machine tool, to a software engineer still need to sort it out in its design. This will help clearly understand possible limits operations on the on this machine and most important effectively apply it. Information, explanatory note design machine tool, usually provided by in the accompanying form documentation on the machine. In Yandex. passport CNC machines all types coordinates are specified, pinned items for a specific one the working body, directions all axes, start counting by for each of the axes and the possible limits movements. To exclude confusion with positive ones directions working bodies, related to the workpiece and with the tool, in the preparation of Up comes from that the tool moving relatively still workpieces. In compliance with the with this point positive results directions coordinate axes.
Each one CNC machine tool it has a starting point a point for each of the possible options travel axes the tool or a table. This one the point is called in different ways: zero position, zero of the system coordinates, initial position. Independently from the name, such a point very important for systems with The CNC. Exactly numerical software management requires relocation in the initial stage a point for each from the machine axes as part of the procedure setting up the machine, currently being performed manually from buttons on the remote control the operator or appropriate with the OU commands.
With what more will be possible find out about the characteristics and structures CNC machine tool, the easier it will be management process with this equipment in the future.
Third direction, required to study as a novice technologist, these are structural changes components a CNC machine tool. In some cases additional features nodes can be manufactured by by the manufacturer machine tool, and in others – third-party services organizations. In any case necessary carefully learn the manual for additional services elements equipment with CNC. To the number of additional features elements machine tools include: measuring devices working length tool parts, devices pallet changes and much more. List of additional features equipment continuously it is being replenished.
Almost all systems CNC machines have unique functions that are embedded in the PPC. List these functions different for any two CNC systems. Often inexpensive equipment CNC allows manual only management by most means its functions. For example, equipment allows you to software management only by movement the tool. And such functions, as a destination and speed spindle rotation, cooling supply or changing the tool they may be produced operator only manually.
With on the other hand, more expensive equipment admits software management by most means its functions, a the operator’s task it boils down to loading a work piece and ready to be removed details. In this case after the event starting processing fully qualified operator available for execution options other functions. Thus, software engineer I have to do it thoroughly study the instructions manufacturer’s name CNC machine tool in order to find out which ones machine functions can be them programmed.
After click-throughs first stage it won’t be hard understand how “force” CNC machine tool submit teams.
2. Presentation structures technological equipment process
Technological approach processing process on a CNC machine in contrast to traditional technological equipment the process requires more detailed information when making a decision technological solutions tasks and accounting specific features views information. Structurally technological approach the process is shared on operations, elements which are:
- Technological approach and auxiliary click-throughs
- Workers and auxiliary services moves
- Elementary classes movements
- Technological features teams
Necessary note that when adding details click-throughs are possible use it typical ones technological solutions solutions. In in particular, processing schemes polygons, planes, slots at the same time milling; selection zones, threads and grooves when turning; holes at the same time drilling. Most of them these solutions programmed in standard versions cycles that provides speed and ease of preparation managers programs.
3. The most labor-intensive preparation stage managers the program is calculating the trajectory the tool and speeds movement of workers machine tools, implementers this trajectory.
In preparation process managing company programs for CNC machines the detail is being considered in the MDTD system (machine – device – tool – detail).
Blank installed on the machine with using the device, which fixes position future details relative initial regulations working bodies machine tools that define the and position cutting tools. Trajectory the tool it is built relative to part outline, and then it is converted in motion appropriate working bodies the machine tool. For this is used coordinate systems machine parts and the tool.
Character paths conditioned by the number of managed services, including simultaneously, coordinates and principle management movement working bodies a CNC machine tool.
Calculation coordinates reference points part outline maintained in the system coordinates details using equations, describing them geometric elements elements, and relationships in triangles. Then, pushing off from coordinates reference points part outline, they count trajectory the tool, in accordance with with an operating window technological equipment process, defining operation type (turning, milling, drilling and etc.), the processing scheme (selecting an array material, polygonal map processing or processing cycles holes), tool and cutting modes. Trajectory the tool they count for a specific purpose its points. So thus, the trajectory tool center in the plane processing options represents represent a line, equidistant to the processed item the outline.
Preparation managing company programs represents this is a reworking process diverse technological support information: for reference purposes, source and accompanying information, received in the early stages its preparation. Technological support documentation it’s called a set of text messages and graphic services documents, individually or in the aggregate defining features technological approach manufacturing process products and services data for organizations production.
In calculations should be made be taken into account requirements to the processed data surfaces, configuration and the material workpieces, technological features features machine tools and features CNC systems, parameters the tool and fasteners devices. Most complete and effective take these factors into account success factors only when automated preparation OUP. To transfer computer tasks manual programming decide technologist-programmer you need to identify patterns the a task, them to perform and lead in the sequence logical solutions. Although automation frees up programmer-technologist from routine work, however he must have good understanding manual techniques programming instructions independently from the fact that really whether he uses it.
After analyzing it writing process managing company programs, you need to structure it received knowledge. Most total for this purpose fits SADT (methodology structural analysis and design). In SADT models used as a natural, so is graphic design languages. To transmit information about a specific company source system natural languages served people describing it the system, and the source graphic design language-sama methodology SADT. Graphic the SADT language provides structure and accurate semantics natural the model language, organizes natural the language is quite good specific and unambiguous in this way.
Ambiguity eliminated also in the result decompositions and callouts high-level charts the level that results in restriction possible numbers interpretations and provides exact value objects and system functions. In other words The SADT model attaches strict meaning as described.
Functional the model represents with the required amount level of detail a system of functions, which in turn the queue reflects your relationships using map items systems.
SADT model sets exactly what it is and what isn’t subject simulations. Limiting subject, SADT model it helps concentrate attention to described the system, allowing you to exclude outsiders subjects. The subject determines what to include in the model. Point vision dictates author of the model selecting the appropriate one information about the subject and its submission form. The goal is the criterion endings simulations.
Except in addition, SADT requires, so that in the diagram it was not less than three and no more six blocks. These restrictions support complexity charts and models at the level, available for reading, understanding and usage.
In the difference from other graphic elements methods of structural analysis analysis in SADT each block side has a special, quite definite purpose. Left side the ad block is intended for for inputs, the upper one is for management, the right one is for outputs, lower – for mechanisms. This designation reflects certain parameters system requirements principles: inputs converted in the outputs, control limits or prescribes it execution conditions conversions, represents information, the Manager actions functions. Usually managers arcs carry information, which indicates, what should I do perform function. Arcs of the mechanism they show you, who, what and how performs function that identifies funds required to perform functions.
Summing up bottom line, I wanted to I would like to note that what’s in preparation managing company programs manually it is necessary collect and process it lots of information. You need to know and layout machine tools, and technology processing options workpieces. Need to be able to code information, count trajectory tool movement, use it reference books. The entire set actions for preparation managing company programs can be used submit as a SADT model. Reading principle such models very simple, therefore any a person can be teach them to understand these models. However, the disadvantage of SADT is limited capacity graphic only by representation.
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